Being fit and healthy is important for a long and happy life! Get latest news, videos and photos on health, physical fitness, body fitness, fitness tips, fitness band.

Google Search

Student at OSU loses 27.8 lbs in 1 month on University budget! Case study shows diet-combo more effective than gym & dieting!

Why is SlimFit Keto Trial so effective?
SlimFit Keto Trial contains the naturally occurring ingredient, hydroxycitcric acid, which boosts weight loss by blocking excess body fat production while increasing resting metabolism by more than 130%. This combination makes the body go from a fat-gain to fat-loss state while resting.

SlimFit Keto Trial with apple cider vinegar has been clinically proven to:

  1. Increase Resting Metabolism More Than 130%
  2. Flush Out Harmful Toxins
  3. Boosts Energy Levels and Increase Mood
  4. Block Excess Fat Production

For our viewers, Heather Nelson has provided the week by week breakdown of her weight loss, the apple cider vinegar recipe she used, and the link to get a free 1 month sample of SlimFit Keto Trial.

Health Risks Of Smoking Tobacco || Health Care Solutions

About half of all Americans who keep smoking will die because of the habit. Each year more than 480,000 people in the United States die from illnesses related to tobacco use. This means each year smoking causes about 1 out of 5 deaths in the US.

Health Risks Of Smoking Tobacco

  • Smoking cigarettes kills more Americans than alcohol, car accidents, HIV, guns, and illegal drugs combined.
  • Cigarette smokers die younger than non-smokers.
  • Smoking shortens male smokers’ lives by about 12 years and female smokers’ lives by about 11 years.
  • Smoking not only causes cancer. It can damage nearly every organ in the body, including the lungs, heart, blood vessels, reproductive organs, mouth, skin, eyes, and bones.

How smoking tobacco affects your cancer risk

Smoking accounts for about 30% of all cancer deaths in the United States, including about 80% of all lung cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women, and is one of the hardest cancers to treat.

Not only does smoking increase the risk for lung cancer, it’s also a risk factor for cancers of the:

  • Mouth
  • Larynx (voice box)
  • Pharynx (throat)
  • Esophagus (swallowing tube)
  • Kidney
  • Cervix
  • Liver
  • Bladder
  • Pancreas
  • Stomach
  • Colon/rectum
  • Myeloid leukemia

Cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and spit and other types of smokeless tobacco all cause cancer. There is no safe way to use tobacco.

Does inhaling affect the risk of cancer?

Yes. Wherever smoke touches living cells, it does harm. Even smokers who don’t inhale are breathing in large amounts of smoke that comes from their mouths and the lit end of the cigarette, cigar, or pipe. They are at risk for lung cancer and other diseases caused by secondhand smoke.

How smoking tobacco damages your lungs

Smoking damages the airways and small air sacs in your lungs. This damage starts early in smokers, and lung function continues to worsen as long as the person smokes. Still, it may take years for the problem to become noticeable enough for lung disease to be diagnosed.

Smoking makes pneumonia and asthma worse. It also causes many other lung diseases that can be nearly as bad as lung cancer.


COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is the name for long-term lung disease which includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema (discussed below). The risk of COPD goes up the more you smoke and the longer you smoke. It gets worse over time, and there is no cure.

Here are some facts about COPD:
  • COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States.
  • Smoking is by far the most common cause of COPD.
  • More women die from COPD than men.

Noises in the chest (such as wheezing, rattling, or whistling), shortness of breath during activity, and coughing up mucus (phlegm) are some of the early signs of COPD. Over time, COPD can make it hard to breathe even at rest. The late stage is one of the most miserable of all illnesses. It makes people gasp for breath and feel as if they are drowning.

Chronic bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is a type of COPD. It’s a disease where the airways make too much mucus, forcing the person to cough it out. It’s a common problem for smokers. The airways become inflamed (swollen) and the cough becomes chronic (long-lasting). The symptoms can get better at times, but the cough keeps coming back. Over time, the airways get blocked by scar tissue and mucus, which can lead to bad lung infections (pneumonia).

There’s no cure for chronic bronchitis, but quitting smoking can help keep symptoms under control. Quitting smoking also helps keep the damage from getting worse.


Emphysema is the other type of COPD. It slowly destroys a person’s ability to breathe. Normally, the lungs contain millions of tiny sacs that help oxygen get into the blood. In emphysema, the walls between the sacs break down and create larger but fewer sacs. This lowers the amount of oxygen reaching the blood. Over time, these sacs can break down to the point where a person with emphysema must work very hard to get enough air, even when at rest.

People with emphysema are at risk for many other problems linked to weak lung function, including pneumonia. In later stages of the disease, patients can only breathe comfortably with oxygen.

Emphysema cannot be cured or reversed, but it can be treated and slowed down if the person stops smoking.

Why do smokers have “smoker’s cough?”

Tobacco smoke has many chemicals and particles that irritate the airways and lungs. When a smoker inhales these substances, the body tries to get rid of them by making mucus and coughing.

The early morning smoker’s cough happens for many reasons. Normally, tiny hair-like structures (called cilia) in the airways help sweep harmful material out of the lungs. But tobacco smoke slows the sweeping action, so some of the particles in the smoke stay in the lungs and mucus stays in the airways. While a smoker sleeps (and doesn’t smoke), some cilia recover and start working again. After waking up, the smoker coughs because the lungs are trying to clear away the irritants and mucus that built up from the day before.

So-called “smoker’s cough” can be an early sign of COPD.

How smoking tobacco affects your heart and blood vessels

Smoking tobacco damages your heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular system), increasing your risk of heart disease and stroke. It’s a major cause of coronary heart disease, which can lead to a heart attack.

Smoking causes high blood pressure, lowers your ability to exercise, and makes your blood more likely to clot. It also decreases HDL (good) cholesterol levels in the blood.

Smoking is a major risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In PAD, plaque builds up in the arteries that carry blood to the head, organs, and limbs. This increases your risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.

Smoking can cause or worsen poor blood flow to the arms and legs. (This is called peripheral vascular disease or PVD). This can cause pain in the legs when walking, and may lead to open sores that don’t heal. Surgery to improve the blood flow often fails in people who keep smoking. This is why many doctors who operate on blood vessels (vascular surgeons) won’t do certain operations on patients with PVD unless they stop smoking.

How smoking tobacco can affect your sex life and reproductive system


Tobacco use can damage a woman’s reproductive health. Women who smoke are more likely to have trouble getting pregnant. When they are pregnant they also tend to have problems that can hurt both mother and baby, for instance:

  • Smokers are more likely to have an ectopic pregnancy (where the embryo implants outside the uterus), which can threaten the mother’s life.
  • Smokers are also more likely to have early membrane ruptures and placentas that separate from the uterus too early.
  • Serious bleeding, early delivery (premature birth), and emergency Caesarean section (C-section) may result from these problems.
  • Smokers are more likely to have miscarriages, stillbirths, babies with cleft lip or palate, and low birth-weight babies.
  • Smoking during pregnancy has also been linked to a higher risk of birth defects and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Women who smoke tend to be younger at the start of menopause than non-smokers and may have more unpleasant symptoms while going through menopause.


Smoking damages the arteries, and blood flow is a key part of male erections. Male smokers have a higher risk of sexual impotence (erectile dysfunction) the more they smoke and the longer they smoke. At least one study has also linked cigar smoking to sexual impotence in men.

Smoking can also affect sperm (which reduces fertility) and increase the risk for miscarriage and birth defects.

Other ways smoking tobacco affects your health

Not all of the health problems related to smoking result in deaths. Smoking affects a smoker’s health in many ways, harming nearly every organ of the body and causing many diseases. Here are a few examples of other ways smoking tobacco affects your health:

  • Increased risk of gum disease and tooth loss.
  • Wounds taking longer to heal
  • Decreased immune system function
  • Increased risk of type 2 diabetes
  • Decreased sense of smell and taste
  • Premature aging of the skin
  • Bad breath and stained teeth
  • Increased risk for cataracts (clouding of the lenses of the eyes)
  • Lower bone density (thinner bones), which means a higher risk for broken bones, including hip fracture
  • Higher risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis
  • Increased risk for age-related macular degeneration, which can cause blindness
  • Increased risk of peptic ulcers

Many of the health problems linked to smoking can steal away a person’s quality of life long before death. Smoking-related illness can make it harder for a person to breathe, get around, work, or play. Quitting smoking, especially at younger ages, can reduce smoking-related disability.

Kids who smoke have smoking-related health problems

Smoking causes serious health problems in children and teens. The most serious is nicotine addiction, which leads to long-term tobacco use. Over time, smokers then develop the health problems discussed above, and often at younger ages.

Children and teens who smoke regularly tend to have more health problems than kids who don’t, such as:
  • Coughing spells
  • Shortness of breath, even when not exercising
  • Wheezing or gasping
  • More frequent headaches
  • Increased phlegm (mucus)
  • Respiratory illnesses that are worse and happen more often
  • Worse cold and flu symptoms
  • Reduced physical fitness
  • Poor lung growth and function, which increases COPD risk

Tobacco use is linked to other harmful behaviors in teens

Research has shown that teen tobacco users are more likely to use alcohol and illegal drugs than are non-users. Cigarette smokers are also more likely to get into fights, carry weapons, attempt suicide, suffer from mental health problems such as depression, and engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. This doesn’t necessarily mean that tobacco use caused these behaviors, but they’re more common in teens who use tobacco.

DIY Face Serum For Acne, Dark Spots And Scars

As someone who has suffered acne, I’m very vigilant about finding good products that can quickly help keep the bumps at bay while reducing the scars they leave behind.

If you’ve ever suffered acne as well, chances are your face also has scars from the acne. Often, I get asked how did I get rid of the terrible dark spots that hunted my face for years.

I’ve talked about several acne recipes on this blog because I understand that a lot of people suffer it too. Yes, several remedies exist that help to reduce this skin problem, but this particular DIY face serum is one of the best! It’s easy to put together, and it doesn’t leave your face with messy felling.

Ingredients Needed & Their Benefits

  • Argan oil – Argan oil regulates the production of sebum, which causes acne, it also helps reduce further breakouts. The vitamin E present in the oil contains anti-oxidants that help remove damaged cells and help new ones grow, therefore fading acne scars.
  • Tea tree essential oil – This oil is known all over the world for its numerous health benefits, including its acne-fighting ability. The best tea tree oil should be 100% pure, unrefined, and chemical-free
  • Lavender essential oil – For a sensitive skin, this oil has a  soothing ability. It fights acne as well as helps to calm the skin as well as to reduce blemishes.
  • Frankincense essential oil – Frankincense has astringent properties. It dries out acne, reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and tightens the skin. It helps heal and fade scars and dark spots very fast
  • Lemongrass essential oil – Lemongrass oil mixed with water, can help to remove excess oil from your skin. It has antimicrobial properties help eliminate bacteria trapped in follicles
  • Oregano essential oil – oregano oil helps in treating minor skin problems such as acne, cold sores, rashes and fungal infections when applied topically. It contains natural antiseptic and antibacterial properties.
  • Geranium essential oil – This oil, helps in fading the look of scars and other spots on the skin quickly. It has powerful cicatrisant properties, which aids in increasing blood circulation right below the surface of the skin; helping with the healing of spots caused by acne, cuts or wounds.
  • Carrot seed essential oil – Carrot Seed Oil is wonderful for protecting the skin, and it can be applied as a base layer under sunscreen. It moisturizes while balancing sebum production, which is always helpful for oily or acne-prone skin.
  • Clove essential oil – Clove has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic qualities and thus can help in treating your acne problems in a natural way.

Ingredients You Need:

  • 6 tbsp argan oil
  • 6 drops lavender essential oil
  • 6 drops tea tree essential oil
  • 6 drops frankincense essential oil
  • 6 drops lemongrass essential oil
  • 6 drops oregano essential oil
  • 6 drops geranium essential oil
  • 4 drops carrot seed essential oil
  • 2 drops clove essential oil
  • 4 oz amber glass dropper bottle


  • Fill up a 4 oz amber glass dropper bottle with 6 tbsp of argan oil with the help of a funnel.
  • Gradually add all the drops of essential oils to the bottle.
  • Cap tightly and gently roll the bottle between your hands to gently mix up all the oils.
  • Your Face serum is ready!
  • To use, place 5 drops on one clean palm, then rub both palms together and gently dab them onto your clean face. If you have dry acne prone skin, then dab it onto a damp face to seal moisture!

  • Use twice daily after cleansing your face.

What Is Bone Cancer?- Health Care Solutions

Bone cancer starts in the bone. Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer and can spread to other areas of the body. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer?

Normal bone tissue

To understand bone cancer, it helps to understand a little about normal bone tissue.

Bone is the supporting framework of your body. Most bones are hollow. The outer part of bones is a network of fibrous tissue called matrix onto which calcium salts are laid down.
What Is Bone Cancer?- Health Care Solutions

Illustration showing structure of bone including cartilage, periosteum, spongy bone, medullary cavity. Also shows a cross section of bone showing blood vessel, periosteum, compact bone, spongy bone, edosteum, medullary cavity.
The hard outer layer of bones is made of compact (cortical) bone, which covers the lighter spongy (trabecular) bone inside. The outside of the bone is covered with a layer of fibrous tissue called periosteum. Some bones are hollow and have a space called the medullary cavity which contains the soft tissue called bone marrow (discussed below). The tissue lining the medullary cavity is called endosteum. At each end of the bone is a zone of a softer form of bone-like tissue called cartilage.

Cartilage is softer than bone but more firm than most tissues. It is made of a fibrous tissue matrix mixed with a gel-like substance that does not contain much calcium.

Most bones start out as cartilage. The body then lays calcium down onto the cartilage to form bone. After the bone is formed, some cartilage may remain at the ends to act as a cushion between bones. This cartilage, along with ligaments and some other tissues connect bones to form a joint. In adults, cartilage is mainly found at the end of some bones as part of a joint. It is also seen at the place in the chest where the ribs meet the sternum (breastbone) and in parts of the face. The trachea (windpipe), larynx (voice box), and the outer part of the ear are other structures that contain cartilage.

Bone itself is very hard and strong. Some bone is able to support as much as 12,000 pounds per square inch. It takes as much as 1,200 to 1,800 pounds of pressure to break the femur (thigh bone). The bone itself contains 2 kinds of cells. The osteoblast is the cell that lays down new bone, and the osteoclast is the cell that dissolves old bone. Bone often looks as if it doesn’t change much, but the truth is that it is very active. Throughout our bodies, new bone is always forming while old bone is dissolving.

In some bones the marrow is only fatty tissue. The marrow in other bones is a mixture of fat cells and blood-forming cells. The blood-forming cells produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and blood platelets. Other cells in the marrow include plasma cells, fibroblasts, and reticuloendothelial cells.

Cells from any of these tissues can develop into a cancer.

Types of bone tumors

Most of the time when someone with cancer is told they have cancer in the bones, the doctor is talking about cancer that has spread to the bones from somewhere else. This is called metastatic cancer. It can be seen in many different types of advanced cancer, like breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer. When these cancers in the bone are looked at under a microscope, they look like the tissue they came from. For example, if someone has lung cancer that has spread to the bone, the cells of cancer in the bone still look and act like lung cancer cells. They do not look or act like bone cancer cells, even though they are in the bones. Since these cancer cells still act like lung cancer cells, they still need to be treated with drugs that are used for lung cancer.

For more information about metastatic bone cancer, please see Bone Metastasis, as well as information on specific cancer ( Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, etc.).

Other kinds of cancers that are sometimes called “bone cancers” start in the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow − not in the bone itself. The most common cancer that starts in the bone marrow and causes bone tumors is called multiple myeloma. Another cancer that starts in the bone marrow is leukemia, but it is generally considered a blood cancer rather than a bone cancer. Sometimes lymphomas, which more often start in lymph nodes, can start in bone marrow. Multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and leukemia are not discussed in this document. For more information on these cancers, refer to the individual document for each.
A primary bone tumor starts in the bone itself. True (or primary) bone cancers are called sarcomas. Sarcomas are cancers that start in bone, muscle, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, fat tissue, as well as some other tissues. They can develop anywhere in the body.

There are several different types of bone tumors. Their names are based on the area of bone or surrounding tissue that is affected and the kind of cells forming the tumor. Some primary bone tumors are benign (not cancerous), and others are malignant (cancerous). Most bone cancers are sarcomas.

Benign bone tumors

Benign tumors do not spread to other tissues and organs and so are not usually life threatening. They are generally cured by surgery. Types of benign bone tumors include:

  • Osteoid osteoma 
  • Osteoblastoma 
  • Osteochondroma
  • Enchondroma
  • Chondromyxoid fibroma.

These benign tumors are not discussed further here. This information is only about bone cancers.

Malignant bone tumors

Osteosarcoma: Osteosarcoma (also called osteogenic sarcoma) is the most common primary bone cancer. This cancer starts in the bone cells. It most often occurs in young people between the ages of 10 and 30, but about 10% of osteosarcoma cases develop in people in their 60s and 70s. It is rare in middle-aged people and is more common in males than females. These tumors develop most often in bones of the arms, legs, or pelvis. This cancer is not discussed in detail in this document but is covered in Osteosarcoma.

Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma is a cancer of cartilage cells. It is the second most common primary bone cancer. This cancer is rare in people younger than 20. After age 20, the risk of getting a chondrosarcoma goes up until about age 75. Women get this cancer as often as men.

Chondrosarcomas can develop anywhere there is cartilage. Most develop in bones such as the pelvis, leg bone or arm bone. Occasionally, chondrosarcoma will develop in the trachea, larynx, and chest wall. Other sites are the scapula (shoulder blade), ribs, or skull.

Benign (non-cancerous) tumors of cartilage are more common than malignant ones. These are called enchondromas. Another type of benign tumor that has cartilage is a bony projection capped by cartilage called an osteochondroma. These benign tumors rarely turn into cancer. There is a slightly higher chance of cancer developing in people who have many of these tumors, but this is still not common.

Chondrosarcomas are classified by grade, which measures how fast they grow. The grade is assigned by the pathologist (a doctor specially trained to examine and diagnose tissue samples under a microscope). The lower the grade, the slower cancer grows. When a cancer is slow growing, the chance that it will spread is lower and so the outlook is better. Most chondrosarcomas are either low grade (grade I) or intermediate grade (grade II). High-grade (grade III) chondrosarcomas, which are the most likely to spread, are less common.

Some chondrosarcomas have distinctive features under a microscope. These variants of chondrosarcoma can have a different prognosis (outlook) than usual chondrosarcomas.

  • Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas start out as typical chondrosarcomas but then some parts of the tumor change into cells like those of a high-grade sarcoma (such as high-grade forms of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, osteosarcoma, or fibrosarcoma). This variant of chondrosarcoma tends to occur in older patients and is more aggressive than usual chondrosarcomas.
  • Clear cell chondrosarcomas are rare and grow slowly. They rarely spread to other parts of the body unless they have already come back several times in the original location.
  • Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas can grow rapidly, but like Ewing tumor, are sensitive to treatment with radiation and chemotherapy.

Ewing tumor: Ewing tumor is the third most common primary bone cancer, and the second most common in children, adolescents, and young adults. This cancer (also called Ewing sarcoma) is named after the doctor who first described it in 1921, Dr. James Ewing. Most Ewing tumors develop in bones, but they can start in other tissues and organs. The most common sites for this cancer are the pelvis, the chest wall (such as the ribs or shoulder blades), and the long bones of the legs or arms. This cancer is most common in children and teenagers and is rare in adults older than 30. Ewing tumors occur most often in white people and are very rare among African Americans and Asian Americans. More detailed information about this cancer can be found in our document called Ewing Family of Tumors.

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) more often starts in soft tissue (connective tissues such as ligaments, tendons, fat, and muscle) than in bones. This cancer is also known as pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma, especially when it starts in soft tissues. When MFH occurs in bones, it usually affects the legs (often around the knees) or arms. This cancer most often occurs in elderly and middle-aged adults and is rare among children. MFH mostly tends to grow locally, but it can spread to distant sites, like the lungs.

Fibrosarcoma: This is another type of cancer that develops more often in soft tissues than it does in bones. Fibrosarcoma usually occurs in elderly and middle-aged adults. Bones in the legs, arms, and jaw are most often affected.

Giant cell tumor of bone: This type of primary bone tumor has benign and malignant forms. The benign (non-cancerous) form is most common. Giant cell bone tumors typically affect the leg (usually near the knees) or arm bones of young and middle-aged adults. They don’t often spread to distant sites, but tend to come back where they started after surgery (this is called local recurrence). This can happen several times. With each recurrence, the tumor becomes more likely to spread to other parts of the body. Rarely, a malignant giant cell bone tumor spreads to other parts of the body without first recurring locally.

Chordoma: This primary tumor of bone usually occurs in the base of the skull and bones of the spine. It develops most often in adults older than 30 and is about twice as common in men as in women. Chordomas tend to grow slowly and often do not spread to other parts of the body, but they often come back in the same area if they are not removed completely. The lymph nodes, the lungs, and the liver are the most common areas for secondary tumor spread.

Other cancers that develop in bonesNon-Hodgkin lymphomas

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma generally develops in lymph nodes but sometimes starts in the bone. Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the bone is often a widespread disease because multiple sites in the body are usually involved. The outlook is similar to other non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the same subtype and stage. Primary lymphoma of the bone is given the same treatment as lymphomas that start in lymph nodes − it is not treated like a primary bone sarcoma. For more information see Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Multiple myelomas

Multiple myeloma almost always develops in bones, but doctors do not consider it a primary bone cancer because it develops from the plasma cells of the bone marrow (the soft inner part of some bones). Although it causes bone destruction, it is no more a bone cancer that is leukemia. It is treated as a widespread disease. At times, myeloma can be first found as a single tumor (called a plasmacytoma) in a single bone, but most of the time it will spread to the marrow of other bones. For more information see Multiple Myeloma

New in Malignant Mesothelioma Research and Treatment. Health Care Solutions

New in Malignant Mesothelioma Research and Treatment. Health Care Solutions
New in Malignant Mesothelioma Research and Treatment. Health Care Solutions

There is always research going on in the area of mesothelioma. Scientists are looking for better ways to prevent, diagnose, and treat mesothelioma. Despite recent progress, much remains to be learned about the best way to treat these cancers.

Causes and prevention

Some research is focused on learning exactly how asbestos changes mesothelial cells and their DNA to cause these cancers. Understanding how these fibers produce cancer might help us develop ways to prevent those changes.

The role of asbestos in increasing the risk of mesothelioma is a definite public health concern. Researchers are learning more about which asbestos fibers can cause cancer, how they cause it, and what levels of exposure might be considered safe. Now that the dangers of asbestos are known, we can limit or stop exposure in homes, public buildings, and the workplace. Unfortunately, regulations protecting workers from asbestos exposure are much less stringent in some countries than in others.

Research is also under way to clarify the role (if any) of SV40, a virus that has been linked to mesothelioma in some studies.


Mesothelioma remains a difficult cancer to treat, and doctors are constantly trying to improve on current approaches. The exact roles of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy in the treatment of mesothelioma are still being studied. Combinations of these treatments are now being tested and may provide the most promising option for some patients. Newer types of treatment now being studied may give patients and their doctors even more options.


Some chemotherapy drugs can shrink or slow the growth of mesotheliomas, but in most cases the effects last for a limited time. Studies are underway to test newer chemotherapy drugs.

Photodynamic therapy

Another technique now being studied is photodynamic therapy (PDT). For this treatment, a light-activated drug is injected into a vein. The drug spreads throughout the body and tends to collect in cancer cells. A few days later (usually in the operating room, just after surgery), a special red light on the end of a tube is placed into the chest. The light causes a chemical change that activates the drug and kills the cancer cells. Since the drug is only active in the areas exposed to the special light, this approach might cause fewer side effects than using drugs that spread throughout the body. Several clinical trials are now studying the use of PDT for mesothelioma. To find out more about PDT, see Photodynamic Therapy.

Targeted drugs

In general, chemo drugs have a limited effect against mesothelioma. As researchers have learned more about the changes in cells that cause cancer, they have developed newer drugs that target these changes. Targeted drugs work differently from standard chemo drugs. They sometimes work when chemo drugs don’t, and they often have different (and less severe) side effects.

Sunitinib (Sutent) is an example of a targeted drug that has shown promise in some studies.

Other new drugs have different targets. For example, some new drugs target mesothelin, a protein found in high levels in mesothelioma cells. To learn more about targeted therapy drugs, see Targeted Therapy.

Other newer forms of treatment

Because standard treatments often have limited usefulness against mesothelioma, researchers are studying other new types of treatment as well.

Gene therapy: A newer type of treatment being tested on mesothelioma is gene therapy, which attempts to add new genes to cancer cells to make them easier to kill. One approach to gene therapy uses special viruses that have been modified in the lab. The virus is injected into the pleural space and infects the mesothelioma cells. When this infection occurs, the virus injects the desired gene into the cells. In one version of this approach, the virus carries a gene that helps turn on the immune system to attack the cancer cells. Early studies of this approach have found it may shrink or slow the growth of mesothelioma in some people, but more research is needed to confirm this.

Immunotherapy: Other new treatments called cancer vaccines are also aimed at getting the immune system to attack the cancer. In one approach, immune cells are removed from a patient’s blood and treated in the lab to get them to react to tumor cells. The immune cells are then given back to the patient as blood transfusions, where it is hoped they will cause the body’s immune system to attack the cancer. This approach is now being studied in clinical trials.

Another form of immunotherapy being studied is a drug called tremelimumab, which targets a certain immune cells and takes the brakes off the immune system.

Virus therapies: Researchers are also studying the use of specially designed viruses to treat mesothelioma. These viruses can be put into the pleural space, where the hope is that they can either infect and kill the cancer cells directly, or cause the immune system to attack the cancer cells. These approaches are still in the early phases of clinical trials.

Risk Factors for Bone Cancer

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for cancers of the lung, mouth, larynx, bladder, kidney, and several other organs. But having a risk factor, or even several, does not mean that you will get the disease. Most people with bone cancers do not have any apparent risk factors.

Genetic disorders

A very small number of bone cancers (especially osteosarcomas) appear to be hereditary and are caused by defects (mutations) in certain genes. Retinoblastoma is a rare eye cancer in children that can be hereditary. The inherited form of retinoblastoma is caused by a mutation (abnormal copy) of the RB1 gene. Those with this mutation also have an increased risk of developing bone or soft tissue sarcomas. Also, if radiation therapy is used to treat the retinoblastoma, the risk of osteosarcoma in the bones around the eye is even higher.

Finally, there are families with several members who have developed osteosarcoma without inherited changes in any of the known genes. The gene defects that may cause cancers in these families haven’t been discovered yet.


Multiple exostoses (sometimes called multiple osteochondromas) syndrome is an inherited condition that causes many bumps on a person’s bones. These bumps are made mostly of cartilage. They can be painful and deform and/or fracture bones. This disorder is caused by a mutation in any one of the 3 genes EXT1, EXT2, or EXT3. Patients with this condition have an increased risk of chondrosarcoma.

An enchondroma is a benign cartilage tumor that grows into the bone. People who get many of these tumors have a condition called multiple enchondromatosis. They have an increased risk of developing chondrosarcomas.


Chordomas seem to run in some families. The genes responsible have not yet been found, but familial chordoma has been linked to changes on chromosome 7.

Patients with the inherited syndrome tuberous sclerosis, which can be caused by defects (mutations) in either of the genes TSC1 and TSC2, seem to have a high risk of chordomas during childhood.

Paget disease

Paget disease is a benign (non-cancerous) but pre-cancerous condition that affects one or more bones. It results in formation of abnormal bone tissue and occurs mostly in people older than 50. Affected bones are heavy, thick, and brittle. They are weaker than normal bones and more likely to fracture (break). Most of the time, Paget disease is not life threatening. Bone cancer (usually osteosarcoma) develops in about 1% of those with Paget disease, usually when many bones are affected.


Bones that have been exposed to ionizing radiation may also have a higher risk of developing bone cancer. A typical x-ray of a bone is not dangerous, but exposure to large doses of radiation does pose a risk. For example, radiation therapy to treat cancer can cause a new cancer to develop in one of the bones in the treatment area. Being treated when you are younger and/or being treated with higher doses of radiation (usually over 60 Gy) increases your risk of developing bone cancer.

Exposure to radioactive materials such as radium and strontium can also cause bone cancer because these minerals build up in bones.

Non-ionizing radiation, like microwaves, electromagnetic fields from power lines, cellular phones, and household appliances, does not increase bone cancer risk.

Bone marrow transplantation
Osteosarcoma has been reported in a few patients who have undergone bone marrow (stem cell) transplantation.


People have wondered if injury to a bone can cause cancer. This has never been proven. Many people with bone cancer remember having hurt that part of their bone. Most doctors believe that these injuries did not cause the cancer. Instead, the cancer caused people to remember the incident or that the injury drew their attention to that bone, making them notice a problem that had already been present for some time.

How to Identify Skin Allergies and Treat Them in Time

Allergies are the bane of life. These conditions pop up at the least times and can create a lot of discomfort to life in general. In the more advanced stages, they can wreak havoc since they can become potentially life threatening! It is always a wise thing to find out what allergies your body is prone to and how to identify them. This will help you get the right kind of treatment at the right time before things get worse. Different people contract different types of allergies. Some are externally seen, while others are more internal. Either way, they need to be attended to as soon as possible. Skin rashes and other skin conditions are very visible and if not treated in time, can leave permanent scars.

Various types of symptoms 

Rashes are normal skin conditions that occur when the body reacts adversely to an allergen. These can easily be treated with the help of over the counter lotions and ointments. But hives are an entirely different category of rashes and are detected using Urticaria Diagnosis. They normally cause itching, but sometimes they may sting or even cause a burning sensation. They appear suddenly as if out of nowhere, anywhere including the tongue, lips, face, ears, throat, etc. They come in different sizes ranging from tiny spots to the size of dinner plates! At times they may fuse together to form plaques.

Life threatening conditions 

Hives are red bumps that appear on the skin due to allergic reactions of the body. They appear for a few hours or so, or at the most for a day. After that they fade away. Angioedema is just the same as hives, but the swelling bumps appear underneath the skin rather than on the surface. Deep swelling can be seen around the lips, eyes, and at times on the hands, feet, and genitals as well. Urticaria Diagnosis can help to identify this condition before it gets worse. In rare cases, angioedema can occur in the throat and lungs, which can make breathing very difficult.

Contributing to research

If you are interested in learning more about these types of diseases and want to contribute to researching them and finding out better cures and preventive measures, you can apply for exams that will help you gain valuable insight into Urticaria Diagnosis. These exams are conducted by internationally recognized organizations that are dedicated to researching immunologic and allergic diseases with a view to educating people about the same. If you want to be a part of this program, check out their websites and enroll right away. These exams are based on revised questions that are prepared on topics such as allergens, drug hypersensitivity, dermatological and respiratory allergies, etc

Brought to You by

Featured post

Student at OSU loses 27.8 lbs in 1 month on University budget! Case study shows diet-combo more effective than gym & dieting!

Why is  SlimFit Keto Trial  so effective? SlimFit Keto Trial  contains the naturally occurring ingredient, hydroxycitcric acid, which bo...



Recent Posts